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Full text of "Robert de Handlo: [Rules]"

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MUSICAL THEORISTS IN TRANSLATION 
VOLUME 2 



ROBERT DE HANDLO 



Translated and Edited 



By 



LUTHER DITTMER 



Institute of Mediaeval Music 
1751 West 9th Street 
Brooklyn 23, N. Y. 
U.S. A. 



MUSICAL THEORISTS IN TRANSLATION 
VOLUME 2 



ROBERT DE HANDLO 



Translated and Edited 



By 



LUTHER DITTMER 



Institute of Mediaeval Music 

1751 West 9th Street 

Brooklyn 23, N. Y. 

U. S. A. 



u 



♦ Jr WIS 



An Edition of: 
600 Copies 



Eine Auflage von 
600 Exemplaren 



NV 372 



MUSIC L1BRARC 

NT 






322636 



Copyright 1959 by the Institute of Mediaeval Music 



1 

The treatise Regulae cum maximis Magistri Franconis cum additionibus 
aliorum musicorum compilatae a Roberto de Handlo exists today only in an 
eighteenth century transcript, said to have been made by Dr. Pepusch 
(1667-1752) from the manuscript London, British Museum, Cotton Tiberius 
B ix and now contained in ibidem, Additional 4909 ff. 1-11 . The Cotton 
manuscript was partially destroyed in the fire of 1731 and this portion 
is unfortunately lost. The treatise has been published in full by E. de 

Coussemaker, Scriptorum de musica medii aevi Vol. I, 1354, pp. 

383-403, which volume will be cited simply as Coussemaker. Basically, 
the text is not corrupt, attesting to the excellent copy of Dr. Pepusch, 
if indeed he had transcribed the work as part of his antiquarian studies 
relative to the older theory of music. Nevertheless, there are several 
errors in Coussemaker' s text and in Dr. Pepusch' s copy, especially as 
regards the musical examples. Since most of the musical examples given 
by Handlo are freely conceived, we have disregarddd these and presenter 
comparable ones which better illustrate the text, giving the modern 
metric equivilents, wherever it is a question of durational values, 
whereby the longa pe rfecta is always rendered as a dotted half-note 
(reduction of 27 : 1). 

The treatise was completed, according to its explicit in 1326 pro- 
bably in England, and concerns itself with the principles of mensuration 
of polyphonic music; liturgical chant is not even mentioned. This is a 
manual for the practical musician and is explicit almost to the point of 
becoming unbearably redundant. Nevertheless, this is a virtue among 
mediaeval treatises, which are all so often ambiguous to us. The period 
in question underwent great changes in notational design, and the ransre 
of durational values extends from the nine-fold longa to the minima, 
which occupies only a 243rd part of this. Robert de Handlo is quite 
specific about the durational values of notes which may be combined with 
each other; thus, the greater longaeare not used together with breves 
or smaller values; more than two semibreves are not used in mos lasciius 
unless longae and semilongae are not used as functional durational 
values. It is truly unfortunate that there are not too many practical 
musical examples from this time from England to apply the principles 
inherent in this treatise; one such example and transcription, however, 
is given. 

Of all of the authors quoted by Handlo, only Franco of Coloene 
is otherwise known in a thirteenth century treatise. The quotations from 
Franco are to be found in similar, mostly verbatim statements in the compendia 
made from Franco's treatise by Johannes Ballox, Coussemaker p. 292f f. , 
.Anonymous II, ibidem p. 296ff. , and Anonymous III, ibidem p. 319ff., con- 
fice also Document V in E. de Coussemaker' s Histoire de I'harmonie au 
moyen age. 

Sources of Quotations in Handlo to the various Compendia of Franco's Treatise 

Handlo Ballox Anonymous II Anonymous III 

1-4 1-5 

5-6 14-15 
7-8 6-7 

9-10 8-0 



1-5 


1-4 


13-15 


5-6 


18-20 


7-8 


26-28 


9-10 



Handlo 

31-34 

38-41 

50-51 

58-72 

75-78 

81-90 

93-105 

128-134 

139-141 

153-159 

419-421 

426-429 

441-442 

471-474 

478-480 

485-486 

521-523 

540-544 

548-549 

556-561 

567 

572-577 
667-668 
672-675 
729-739 



741-758 
778-781 
784-785 
800-801 
813-814 
817-818 
824-826 



Ballox 

11-12 (33-34) 
20 (40-41) 
21-22 
13-19, 23-29 

30-33, 40-41 
41-46, (98), 34-39 
47-50, 54-56 

57-63 
69-70 
71-73 

74-76 
77-79 
80-83 



An 



onvmous 



II 



An 



onvmous 



III 



97-99 

84-86, 

90 

91-96 



(= 559-561) 



115-116, 113-114, 
111-112, 108-110, 
116-117 * 



11-14 10-13 

17-19 17-20 

20 21 

21-36 22-41 

42-44 

36-42, (87-90) 45-54 
43-44, 46-50, (95-99)55-66. 

51-56 67-74 

57-58 75-76 

59-67 77-85 

72-73 93-95 

75-77 96-98 

78-79 99-100 

80-82- 101-104 



83-84 ' 

85-87 

88-89, 103-105 

106-107 
• 90-91 

95 

95-98 
108-109 
110-111 
112-120 



121-134 (= 

135-138 

139 

140 

141 

142 

143-144 



105-106 

113-116 

117-118, 

147-148 

119-124 

125 

130-132, 

149-151 

152-155 



756-758) --- 



156- 

158 

159-160 
161-162 
163-164 
165-166 






144-146 



136-138 



Line references are to the treatises in Coussemaker's edition, where the 
columns of the individual works begin with the following lines: Ballox 
P. 292a: 1; b: 7; 293a: 11; b: 30;' 294a: 51; b: 71; 295a: 87; 6: 102 
296a: 125; 6: 133. Anon. II: P. 303a: 1; 6: 11; 304a: 20; 6: 35; 305a 
55; 6: 72; 306a: 90; b: 108; 307a: 133; b: 143; 308a: 169; b: 185; 309a 
196; 6: 219; 310a: 236; 6: 247; 311a: 287; b: 306; 312a: 340; b: 377; 313a 
388; b: 343; 314a: 396; b: 401; 315a: 408; b: 412; 316a: 417; b: 422 
317a: 427; b: 433; 318a: 440; b: 442; 319a: 447; 6: 449. Anon. Ill: P. 319a 
1; b: 8; 320a: 12; 6: 22; 321a: 38; b: 59; 322a: 82; 6: 99; 323a: 119; b 
139; 324a: 156; b: 170; 325a: 202; b: 225; 326a: 236; 6: 245; 327a: 266 
b: 271. Robert de Handlo: P. 383a: 1; b: 6; 384a: 14; 6: 35; 385a: 58; b 
69; 386a: 86; b: 103; 387a: 122; 6: 135: 388a: 158; b: 174; 389a: 209; b 



337; 390a: 357; b: 375; 391a: 389; b: 410; 392a: 428; 6: 452 



6: 490; 394a: 508; 6: 528 
b: 620; 398a: 639; b: 653 
b: 792; 402a: 815; b: 827 



395a: 545; 6: 562; 396a: 3 7 K: b: 594 
399a: 672; 6: 690; 400a: 713, b: 742 
403a: 856; 6: 862. 



393a: 473 
397a: 608 
40ia: 769; 



The following technical terms are used in their Latin forms, and are 
explained in the section indicated; for convenience sake, the plural 
forms are given in parentheses: 

brevis (breves) 

altera(ta) (alteratae, alterae) 
coniugens (coniugentes ) 
erecta (erectae) 
coniunctura (ccniuncturae) 
cum opposita proprietate 
cum, sine perfectione 
cum, sine proprietate 
divisio modi (divisiones modi) 
figura rotunda (figurae rotundae) 
ligatura longaris (ligaturae longares) 
longa (longae) 

duplex (duplices) 

erecta (erectae) 

imperfecta (imperfectae) 

perfecta (perfectae) 

plicata (plicatae) 

simplex (simplices) 

triplex (triplices) 
minima (minimae) 
minorata (minoratae) 
mos lascivus (mores lascivi) 
mos longus (mores longi) 
mos mediocris (mores mediocres) 
plica (plicae) 

punctus divisionis (puncta divisionis) 
semibrevis (semibreves) 

minor (minores) 
semilonga (semilongae) 

erecta (erectae) 
signum rotundum (signa rotunda) 



Rubric 


1 


, Rule IV 




Rubric 


3 


Maxims 2 


and 3 


Rubric 


9 


Rule X 




Rubric 


1 


Rule VII 




Rubric 


9 


Maxim 3 




Rubric 


6 


Rule XIX 




Rubric 


8 


Rule I 




Rubric 


6 


Rules I and IX 


Rubric 


3 


Rule III 




Rubric 


9 


Rule II 




Rubric 


6 


Rule XI 




Rubric 


1 


Rule I 




Rubric 


2 


Rule IV 




Rubric 


1 


Rule III 




Rubric 


2 


Maxim 1 




Rubric 


2 


Maxim 1 




Rubric 


1 


Rule III 




Rubric 


5 


Rule I 




Rubric 


5, 


Rule I 




Rubric 


4 


Rule XII 




Rubric 


4 


Rule XII 




Rubric 


4 


Maxims 4 


and 5 


Rubric 


4 


Maxims 4, 


5&6 


Rubric 


4 


Maxims 4 


and 5 


Rubric 


10 


, Maxim 1 




Rubric 


4 


Rule VI 




Rubric 


1 


Rule VII 




Rubric 


4 


Maxim 1 




Rubric 


2 


Maxim 2 




Rubric 


9 

— i 


Rule III 




Rubric 


4 


Rule XI 





The following English equivilents are used in translating technical 
terms: 



durational unit 

durational value 

larger semibrevis 

ligature 

oblique figure 

perfection 

plicate 

practical musician 

rest 

smaller semibrevis 

stem 



tempus (tempora) 

valor (valores) 

semibrevis maior (semibreves maiores) 

ligatura (ligaturae) 

obliquitas (obliquitates) 

perfectio ( perfect iones) 

perplicare 

cantor (cantores) 

pausa (pausae) 

semibrevis minor (semibreves minores) 

tractus (tractus) 



Corrections to the Text of Coussemaker' s Edition 



Page 

383a after 1 

383b before 1 

383b before 4 

383b before 8 

384a before 3 

384a before 5 

384a before 8 

384a before 11 

384a before 13 

384al5 

384a before 16 

384a before 18 

384a before 20 

384b before 1 

384b before 4 

384b before 6 

384b before 8 

384b before 11 

384b before 14 

384b before 16 

384b before 18 

384b before 20 

387b4 

393al 

394a before 8 

394a before 11 

394a before 14 

394a before 17 

394a before 20 

394b before 3 

394b before 6 

394b before 9 

394b before 13 

395b7 

396a before 10 

396a before 12 

396a before 15 

398a7 

398b before 1 

399b8 

400al2 

400b8 

400bl6 

401a9 

401al5 

401bl2 

402a9 

402b3 



Correct 



ion 



Add Regula I 

Add Regula II 

Add Maxima 2 

.Add Regula III 

Add Maxima 3 

Add Regula IV 

Add Regula V 

Add Maxima 4 

.Add Regula VI 

vocatur instead of vecatur 

-Add Maxima 5 

Add Regula VII 

Add Regula VIII 

Add Maxima 6 

Add Regula I 

Add Maxima 1 

Add Maxima 2 

.Add Regula II 

.Add Regula III 

Add Regula IV 

Add Maxima 2 

Add Regula V 

brevis habet instead of brevis babet 

descendentem instead of ascendentem 

Add Regula XVII 

Add Regula XVIII 

Add Regula XIX 

Add Maxima 10 

Add Regula XX 

Add Regula XXI 

Add Regula XXII 

Add Regula XXIII 

Add Maxima 11 

continuat instead of desinat 

Add Regula X 

Regula XI instead of Regula X 

Add Maxima 2 

inveniuntur instead of inveniantur 

Add Maxima 2 

obliquitatibusque instead of obliquitatibsv» 

maioris instead of valoris 

partis instead of perfect ionum 

minor atam instead of maiori 

non possunt instead of possunt 

derivitur instead of deserutur 

brevi precedente instead of precedente 

quarta rubrice instead of rubrice 

duobus instead of unius 



In the manuscript London, British Museum., 
treatise, in relationship to the transcription 
tained on the following folios: 



Additional 1*909, this 
in Coussemaker, is con- 



l r 
l v 
2 r 
2 V 
3 r 
3 V 
4 r 
4 V 
5 r 
5 V 
6 r 



383al to p. 383al5 
384al6 to p. 385a6 



385a6 to p. 
386b7 to p. 
387bll to p. 
388b23 to 
38%9 to 



390b5 
391b7 
392b3 
393b7 



to 
to 



to p. 
to p. 



386b7 

387bll 

388b23 

389b9 

390b4 

391b6 

392b3 

393b7 

394b6 



6 V 

7 r 

7 V 

8 r 

8 V 

9 r 

9 V 

10 r 

10 v 

ll r 



p- 


393b7 


to 


p- 


395al4 


p- 


395al4 


to 


p- 


396al6 


p. 


397bl 


to 


p- 


397b9 


p- 


397bl0 


to 


p. 


398bl2 


p- 


398bl3 


to 


p. 


399b6 


p. 


399b6 


to 


p. 


400al8 


p- 


400al8 


to 


p- 


401a9 


p- 


401al0 


to 


p. 


401b21 


p- 


401b22 


to 


p. 


402bl6 


p- 


402bl6 


to 


p. 


403bl0 



The Rules of Robert de Handlo 

Here begin the rules with maxims of Master Franco together with the 
additions of other musical scholars , compiled by Robert de Handlo. 

Here begins the first rubric, which concerns itself with longae , 
breves and semibreves , and how they may be divided. 

Maxim 1 

Franco: The moderns rejoice in brevity, etc. 

Rule I 

Idem: Whenever a square figure or a square note, the two terms being 
identical in meaning, has a stem drawn downwards on the right side, it 
is called a longa, as in the following example: 

Rule II 

Handlo: If it has a stem drawn upwards on the right side, it is called a 
longa erecta, as in the following example: 



i.jj'* 



M 



axim I 



These longae erectae * » are put onto the right side of the preceding 
longae, which are considered to be longae erectae, and they are called 
longae erectae , because whenever they occur, they are raised by a halftone. 

Coussemaker p. 383al to p. 383b7 



1) The longa erecta is discussed, apparently, only in the treatises of 



Rule III 

Franco: A longa which has two stems, where the right one is longer than 
the left, is called a longa plicata, as in the following example: 






Y 

Maxim 3 

Handlo: Longae erectae, whether they be perfect or imperfect, may never 
be plicated. 

Rule IV 

Franco: Whenever a square figure is found that has no stem at all, it is 
called a brevis, as in the following example: 

,- = J 

Rule V 

Handlo: If it has a stem drawn upwards on the left side, it is called a 
brevis erecta, as in the following example: 



l.J 73 

— 3 

Maxim 4 



.And it raises the note by a halftone, just as in the case of the 
longa erecta. 

Coussemaker p. 383b8 to p. 38Hal2 



Handlo and Hanboys, and has the same attributes as the longa recta {id est it 
may be perfect or imperfect), except that it may not be plicated, and will be 
sung a half-tone higher. In the tenth rubric, however, Handlo states in the 
chapter heading, that a plicated longa simplex is the same as a longa erecta. 
In rule VII of that rubric, Handlo is not too precise; there, he states that a 
plicated longa at the end of a composite figure will become a longa erecta, if 
the following note i-s one toward which the plica can be directed. A plicated 
note could be directed to another note, if it formed a dissonance with a lower 
or higher part, as exempli gratia when the plicated note is high e, and the 
tenor has low F; this would be an appogiatura, which would be followed by a 
rest. It could also be directed to a note a third above, or possibly also to 
one of the same pitch. Externally, of course, a plica drawn upwards after a 
composite figure would look exactly like a longa erecta. Handlo and Hanboys 
feel that the plica is to have the durational value of a smaller semibrevis under 
these circumstances, and possibly this division also obtains for the longa 
erecta. It would thus appear, that the only possible difference between a 
plicated longa and a Zonga erecta, is that the auxiliary tone of a longa erecta 
must be a minor second, that of a plicated longa may also indicate other in- 
tervals. 



Rule VI 

Franco: A brevis which has two stems, where the left one is longer than 
the right, is called a brevis plicata, as in the following example: 

^3 ^3 

Maxim 5 

Handlo: The breves erectae, like the longae erectae, cannot be plicated. 

Rule VII 

Franco: The semibreves are shaped in the form of a losenger, as in the 
following example: 

Rule VIII 

Idem: They cannot be plicated, unless three are grouped together over a 
syllable: 



* 9 3 



V 

Maxim 6 

Handlo: When they are grouped together, they are said to be conjoined in 
their own fashion, whereby the final note may be plicated only in an 
upwards direction, never downwards. 



Here begins the second rubric, which concerns itself with the longa, 
the semilonga and the longa duplex, as well as with their durational 
values. 

Rule I 

Franco: A longa before a longa has the value of three durational units, 
as in the following example: 

b a o • o . 

Maxim 1 

Idem: The longa of three durational units is called a longa perfecta; 
the longa of two durational units is called a longa imperfecta. 

Coussemaker p. 381al3 to p. 38Hb7 



Maxim 2 

Handlo: It is more appropriate to call a longa imperfecta a semilonga, 
and a per fee ta a longa. 

Rule II 

Idem: The semilonga and the lon&a have the same note shapes, but are 
different in their musical proportions and presentation, as in the 
following example: 

VI 

Rule III 

Idem'. The same holds true for the longa and semilonga erectae, as in the 
following example: 

J J 

Pule IV 

Franco: The longa duplex contains six durational units, and is formed in 
the following manner: 

mm = O- 



Maxim 3 

Handlo: The longa erecta is not involved, since it is a simplex note. 

Rule V 

Idem: A longa duplex contains five durational units, if it is either 
preceded or followed by a brevis or its equivilence . >, as shown in the 
third rule of the fifth rubric, and in the example included there. 



Here begins the third rubric, which concerns itself with distin- 
guishing the longae from the semilongae and vice versa by the use of 
breves, semibreves and rests appended to them; in addition, the brevis 
altera and the equivilence of breves will be discussed. 

Rule I 

Franco: Whenever a single brevis or its equivilence precedes a longa, 
the latter is made imperfect, as in the following example: 

Coussemaker p. 38468 to p. 385a2 



1) Confice the transcriptions of Nos. 44 and 47 in my The Worcester Fragments , 

1957; facsimiles of these compositions are included in the series Facsimiles 
of Mediaeval Musical Manuscripts , Volume V. 



[tule li 

Idem: If a single brevis or its equivilence follows a ionga, the latter 
is made imperfect, as in the following example: 

3 



, . , ♦ M y - J J J J> J J * 



Rule III 

Idem: This is true, unless the passage is clarified by a divis* > wo^i, 
as in the following example: 

■ •■■■•♦♦* ■ • = 0. J J 0* J' J J J. 

Maxim 1 

Idem: In this case, the first longa will have three durational urn 
and the brevis or equivilence, which follows, will relate to the following 
longa, and make it imperfect. 



Idem: It is known that all breves may be made uneaual in dur < r lonal v 
in three ways: First of all, whenever two breves occur between • -n loigne , 
the first brevis will contain one durational unit, the seconc .-.-• two, 
and the latter one is called a brevis altera. 

Maxim 3 

Handlo: It is more appropriate to call this a brevis alterata, becau- 
it has been altered from its proper durational value ,,. 

Rule IV 

Franco: The surrounding longae are perfectae , as in the following example: 

3 

■ ■•^♦♦♦■^ s d. J 6 a- 6 . J J J J J. 

Rule V 

Idem: This is true, unless a single brevis or equivilence precedes or 
follows, as in the following example: 

• v-ii»»»-i- = J J JJ J. J. JT2J J J 

Maxim 4 

Handlo: Thus, two breves between two longae are unequal in durational 
value. 

Coussemaker p. 385a3 to p. 385b 1 2 



1) The distinction that Handle us trving to make, shows that he no longer 

understands, that the brevis altera was originally so called, because it was 
the second of two breves between longae. Handlo thinks it better to call it a 
brevis alterata, that is an altered brevis. 



10 

Rule VI 

Franco: This is true, unless the passage is clarified by a divisio modi, 
as in the following example: 

Maxim 5 

Idem: In such a case, both breves are equal in durational value; the 
first one makes the first longa imperfect, the second one similarly the 
second longa. 

Rule VII 

Idem: If three breves should come between two longae , such breves are 
equal in durational value, and the surrounding longae are perfectae, as 
in the following example: 

q • ■ ■ , = J. JJJJ. 

Rule VIII 

Idem: This is true, unless a brevis or equivilence precedes or follows 
the afore-mentioned longae, as in the -following example: 

-vv-v = JJ JJJJ JJ>JJ JJJJ J5 

Maxim 6 

Handlo: Consequently, three breves between two longae are equal in 
durational value. 

Rule IX 

Idem: This is true, unless the passage is clarified by a divisio modi, 
as in the following example: 



■ ■•■■■ s • 



Maxim 7 

Idem: In such a case, the first brevis makes the initial longa imperfect, 
the second has one and the third has two durational units, this being a 
brevis altera; and this is the second way in which breves may be made 
unequal in durational value. 

Coussemaker p. 385b 1 3 to p. 386a 1 3 



Rule X 

Idem: The third way, in which breves may become unequal in durational 
value, is found if more than three breves occur between longae , or, if 
the initial longa is missing, the same state of affairs remains; the 
breves are counted in groups of threes, each equal to a perfection; if 
two breves should be left over at the end, the last brevis will have two 
durational units, as in the following example: 

! V J. J JJJJ J JJ J-, =JJ JJJ J, 

Rule XI 

Handlo: If, however, four breves should occur between longae , there is 
the possibility that either the initial longa will be perfecta, whereby 
the following three breves will be counted as a perfection, and the last 
brevis will make the final longa imperfect, or the first brevis will 
make the initial longa imperfect, whereby the following three breves 
will be counted as a perfection, and the final longa will be perfecta; I 
might add to this, that only if for some reason the second method is 
impossible, will the first method be resorted to ,<> , as in the following 
example: 

V .. B1 « J.JJJJJ.J J J J J J- 

Rule XII 

Idem: The situation is changed, however, when a divisio nodi is added, 
as in the following case: 



^•■■■■^ = J-JJJJJ 



Maxim 8 

Idem: In this case, the first method is applied. 

Coussemaker p. 386a I U- to p. 386b I M^ 

1) The significance of prefering the second method to the first, is to hold 

that the division semilonga brevis of the perfection is more usual than brevis 
senilonga {id est, first, as opposed to second mode). 



12 

Rule XIII 



Idem: If, however, five breves should occur between two longae, the com- 
putation returns to what Franco has said (Rule X): The initial longa 
perfecta has the same durational value as the first group of three equal 
breves, whereas the last two breves will be unequal in durational value, 
because the final brevis is alterata, as in the following example: 



1= J.JJJJJ J 



Rule XIV 

Idem: The situation is changed, when a divisio modi is added, as in the 
following case: 



v= J JJ'JJJJ 



Maxim 9 

Idem: In such a case, the first brevis makes the initial longa imperfect; 
the following three breves are equal in durational value, and the last 
brevis makes the final longa imperfect. 

Rule XV 

Idem: It is known, that the .brevis alterata may be erecta, just like the 
brevis erecta, as in the following example: 

^.b.kb 1 . J. JJjAi. -iftj_.A). 



Here begins the fourth rubric, which concerns itself with the semi- 
breves as well as with their equality, inequality and method of division, and 
how many may be combined to total the durational value of the brevis and 
the longa. 

Rule I 

Franco: Whenever two semibreves occur between two longae or breves, or 
between a longa and a brevis or vice versa, the first semibrevis occupies 
one semibrevial unit of time, that is the third part of one durational 
unit, whereas the second will occupy two, as in the following example: 



^.^j...,. J j£jj. JJ3JJJJ. 



Coussemaker p. 386bl5 to p. 3 87 a 1 1 



- 

Rule II 

Idem: If three semibreves should occur, then they are equal in durational 
value, as in the following example: 

Maxim 1 

Handlo: The semibreves are called equal in durational value, when three 
replace a brevis, and they are said to be minores. The smaller semibrevis 
occupies one third of the durational value of a brevis. 

Rule III 

Franco: If four semibreves should occur between two longae or breves, 
they are always counted in twos, and each group is equal to a brevis 
recta, as in the following example: 



♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 



,.♦♦♦♦< = J JUJU J J j>j/j J. 



1 

Maxim 2 

Handlo: The afore-mentioned rule of Franco's, the third one of this 
fourth rubric, has validity whenever the brevis does not provide the 
beat, except when groups of three semibreves are formed, as in hockets 



and in many motets . , 



Rule IV 



Idem: In motets and other compositions, it is always safer and more 
correct <o add a punctus divisionis wherever semibreves occur between 
groups o^ two and two, or three and three, or even between three and two 
such notes, as has been done by Petrus de Cruce. This same procedure is 
followed by the modern practical musicians, as in the following example: 



♦ ♦•♦♦♦•♦♦ 



. J>J J73i)J 



Coussemaker p. 387al2 to p. 387618 

1) The exception is given in rubric 12, maxim 5 paragraph C, where the 

hockets, formed in this manner, not only are beaten in s emibrev es , as also 
those described in paragraph B, but also need not form groups of three semi' 
breves equal to a brevis. Undoubtedly, because of this lack of the unifying 
power of a perfect brevis, this is the most difficult type, as Iacobus de 
Navernia describes it. Apparently, this is also found in many motets, perhaps 
some of those in the later fascicles of the Montpellier manuscript {H 196) are 
to be considered in this light. 



14 

Rule V 

Franco: It is known, that whenever more than three senibreves occur 
between two longae or breves, or between a longa and a brevis or vice 
versa, the a fore -mentioned senibreves are unequal in durational value, 
unless a group of three senibreves is left over at the end, in which 
case these are equal in durational value, as in the following example: 

i 1= J JUJijJJJ jQjQjfij. 

Rule VI 

Idem: This is true, unless the passage is clarified by a divisio nodi, 
as in the following example: 



i- J. JI3JIJJJ7JJijj5j 



Maxim 3 

Handlo: Consequently, when a punctus divisionis is put between groups of 
three and three semibreves , it causes them to be equal in durational 
value; and if two semibreves are left over at the end, they are unequal 
in durational value. 

Rule VII 

Petrus de Cruce: Our intention becomes evident in the case of the seni- 
breves; as has been said, we put a punctus divisionis between groups of 
two semibreves , and these are thereby rendered unequal in durational 
value; that is, the first is the smaller, the second the larger semi- 
brevis. If we put a punctus divisionis between groups of three seni- 
breves, they are equal in durational value; that is, they are all smaller 
semibreves. If we put a punctus divisionis between groups of two and 
three semibreves , the two are unequal, the three equal in durational 
value. If we put a punctus divisionis between groups of three and two 
semibreves, the three are equal, the two unequal in durational value, as 
in the following example: 



** *f 3 

= /73/73J>j 



Maxim 4 



Petrus le Viser: A. The longae, semilongae , breves and semibreves are 
really performed in three different ways in vocal music, namely in nos 
longus , mos mediocris and mos lascivus i ,. 



Coussemaker p. 3 87 b 1 9 to p. 388b2 



1) I wish to take this opportunity to correct my statement in Die Musik- 



B. In mos longus, an unlimited number of semibreves may be offered 
and represented with longae, semilongae and breves. 

C. In mos mediocris , three, four or five semibreves may be offered 
for a brevis together with semilongae and breves and occasionally with 
longae; in such a case, the semibreves should always be conjoined and 
never presented disjunct, and if they be disjunct, they may be divided 
into three and no more. 

Maxim 5 

D. In mos mediocris , two semibreves are equal in durational value, 
three are unequal, four again equal and five unequal. In mos longus, all 
of the afore-mentioned rules, concerning the equality or inequality of 
semibreves , are pertinent; in mos mediocris , however, they are never 
pertinent. 

E. In mos lascivus, longae, semilongae and breves and occasionally 
even longae duplices are offered together with the smaller and larger 
semibrevis , which may consist of individual notes, ligated or oblique 
figures; however, three, four or five semibreves may not occur in mos 
lascivus , unless the longae and semilongae are not used. When longae and 
semilongae are omitted, only breves and semibreves are offered, in which 
case two or three semibreves may be used for a brevis, but never more. 

F. Many lascivious hockets utilise semibreves in this manner, in 
which case the second maxim of the third rule of this rubric has validn ■.. 



Rule VIII 

A. In mos lascivus , we deny the existence of breves alterae and of 
all unequal breves, and we affirm their equality. 

B. Thus, when two breves are put between two longae in mos lascivus, 
they are equal in durational value, and the surrounding longae are 
imperfect; thus, we deny the validity of the fourth rule of the thirH 
rubric, as pertaining to compositions in mos longus , 

C. If in mos lascivus , three breves occur between two longae, the 
surrounding longae are perfectae , unless a brevis or equivalence should 
precede or follow them, as has been shown in the fifth rule of the third 
rubric. 

Coussemaker d. 388b3 to p. 389a5 



forschung, X 1957 p. 191; Mos longus undoubtedly owes its name to the fact that 
the longer note values are of excessively long duration, whereas the basic 
rhythm of the composition moves in breves and semibreves. The composition^ 
associated with the style of Petrus de Cruce, for example, would be performed 
in this manner, as the example given in rule VIII of this rubric. The other two 
mores permit binary rhythm; in fact, if semibreves are used, they must be 
measured equally in mos mediocris . Mos mediocris does not require a subdivision 
of the brevis, since no more than three independent s emibreves may occupy the 
durational value of the brevis. It is called mediocre, undoubtedly, because the 
larger note values move at an ordinary tempo. Mos lascivus is used mainly in 
hockets, but possibly also in some motets; the term lascivious undoubtedlv 
implies its wanton character; there will be a hocket without generating a 
specific feeling for a larger containing unit, especially one containing 
three smaller units. Perhaps, it is also lascivious because it may use smaller 
or larger values, the rules of alteration being voided; thus, the third and 
fourth modes are made binary ( rubric 13 , maxim 9) if this method of presentation 
is used. Perhaps the suggestion that this might be done implies the fact that a 
choice existed in the method of performance of some works. 



16 

D. The breves, which are put between such longae, are equal 
durational value, as shown in rule VII of the third rubric. 



in 



Petrus de Cruce: A. Four disjunct or conjunct semibreves have the dura- 
tional value of one brevis, whether they be put between breves or semi- 
breves, which are in ligatures or in oblique figures. 

B. If four semibreves occur between disjunct semibreves, and if a 
punctus divisianis follows them, they will have the durational value of 

one brevis. 

C. The same may be said about five, six or seven semibreves which 
occur, set off by a following punctus divisionis, as shown in the fol- 
lowing motet (Montpellier H 196 No. 254): 



3r 



Au-cun ont tro-ve chant par u - sa-ge, Mes a moi endoune o-choi-son 
3. 3 - i - 3 3 3 3 



& P r p p p p p P i p p p pfg 



s 




t 



" Au-cun ont tro-ve chant par u - sa-ge, Mas a moi en doune o-choi-son 

Maxim 6 

Petrus le Viser: All of this obtains, when semibreves are offered in mos 
longas. 

Maxim 7 

Iohannes de Garlandia jV: In the following work, we shall give the good 
and proper method of judging semibreves . 

Pule IX 

It is proper for the larger semibrevis to be distinguished from the 
smaller not only by external shapes, but also by means of notational 
siens, notably: If it is a larger semibrevis, it is shaped like a losenger, 
having a stem drawn downwards attached obliquely; if it is a smaller 
semibrevis, it is shaped only in the form of a losenger, as in the fol- 
lowing example: 



♦t 



= J) J 



Rule X 

Handlo: Quite often, the larger semibrevis will precede the smaller, or 
vice versa, and the punctus divisionis will not be used, as in the fol- 
lowing example: 

3 



r . T * = J J>J'J> 



Coussemaker p. -389a6 to 38952 



1) Not to be identified with the' Iohannes de Garlandia, the author of the 

treatises in Coussemaker pp. 97ff. and 1 57 ff. , but rather wi th the person quoted 
by Hanboys (ibidem, p. 424b inter alias), if the name has not been nisatt ributed. 



17 

Maxim 8 

Iohannes de Garlandia: Three, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine semi- 
breves may be added together to form the equivilence of a brevis', they 
will contain the durational value of one brevis. 

Rule XI 

Idem Iohannes : It is important to be able to recognise minimae and 
minoratae ; the semibrevis minor has the durational value of three 
minimae , whereas the brevis contains three semibreves minores. Con- 
sequently, a brevis has the durational value of nine minimae. It is 
necessary to notate the minimae like semibreves minores, but the minimae 
are distinguished by the use of a signum rotundum ,., as in the following 
example: 



♦ ♦ ♦ o = 



nm 



Rule XII 

Idem: There are also semibreves minoratae ; thus, one minorata has the 
durational value of two minimae, and is shaped like the larger semi- 
brevis] normally, the minima precedes the minorata, when the signum 
rotundum surrounds them, as in the following example: 



+ *o + fo*fs 

.9 .9 J? 



Rule XIII 

Idem: If a single semibrevis has a signum rotundum after it, it is said 
to be a smaller semibrevis , and then it must be found mixed among 
minimae and minoratae. Two smaller semibreves have two signa rotunda to 
distinguish the minimae and the minoratae , when the third semibrevis is 
missing, as in the following example: 

3 

♦ o ♦♦ .♦♦'♦. * J>«f3 ffl 

I 3 3 

Rule XIV 

If groups of minimae and minoratae contain the durational value of 
three smaller semibreves , they have a punctus divisionis at the end, as 
in the following example: 



♦ ♦(>♦♦♦ <>♦♦♦. = «TJ Jj3 J J J 

1 3 3 3 

Coussemaker p. 389b3 to p. 390a5 



1) Signa rotunda are present in such a source as London, Westmins ter Abbey, 

12185, a double leaf not the middle of a gathering. F. 2 r is offered in 
facsimile with a transcription of the composition Beatus vir qui regum in this 
work. Similar notational devices are to be found in the other compositions of 
this fragment: f. l r Viri galilei, f. l v Hec avalle lacri&osa, f. 2 r Nos 
orphanorum, f. 2 4 solis ortus cardine and Salvator mundi domine. 



18 

Rule XV 

Handlo: A minorata may not be used without a preceding minima, as in the 
following example: 

3 



f o » f o ♦ ♦• = # J J"J 
J J j 



Rule XVI 

Idem: A. Hiere are many ways in which the larger and the smaller semi- 
breves, or their equivilence the minorata and minima may be decribed. 

B. A brevis will have the same durational value as one larger and 
one smaller semibrevis , or three smaller semibreves which are equal, or 
three minimae and three minoratae combined, or nine minimae. 

C. Three breves constitute a perfection; thus, a perfection will 
have the same durational value as twenty seven minimae, or nine minimae 
and an eaual number of minoratae , or nine smaller semibreves and an 
equal number of smaller semibreves or vice versa, as in the following 
example: 

1= >. ■ «♦f ♦ f* f «♦♦ ♦• ♦♦♦•♦♦♦«♦fo*fo#f. 

♦ ♦©♦♦o#f##o*fo ♦♦•=♦♦♦ o ♦♦♦(>♦♦♦•♦♦♦ o 



Rule XVII 

Iohannes de Garlandia: Thus, the larger and smaller semibreves in disjunct 
or conjunct form may be used along with minimae and minoratae , as in the 
following example: 

m.i . t> ♦♦♦•♦♦. = /3 «n bFRF] 



Here begins the fifth rubric, which concerns itself with longae 
which exceed the durational value of a longa duplex, and how they must 
be notated and how they may be related to other notes. 

Rule I 

Handlo: A. A figure containing three squares is a longa triplex, that is 
it is called a note of three perfections. 

B. If it contains four squares, it is said to be a note of four 
perfections. 

C. If it contains five squares, it is considered a note of five 
perfections; if six, six; if seven, seven; if eight, eight; if nine, nine. 

D. It is impossible to increase the longa beyond this. 

E. This is because, just as the longa simplex has the durational 
value of nine semibreves minor es , so also the longa of nine perfections 
is permitted to have only the durational value of nine longae and no more. 

Coussemaker p. 390a6 to p. 39la2 



19 

F. The note shapes of all of these longae are given in the 
following example: 

irn 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i | i M 1 1 1 1 1 ii 1 1 i 1 1 i | 1 1 1 i i i 1 1 i | 

Maxim 1 

Idem: The older organum purum used such longae, but did not notate them 
in this fashion; we have notated them, however, in this fashion, that 
they might be more easily recognised , ,. 

Maxim 2 

Idem: These afore -mentioned longae may never be made imperfect, because 
they may not be used in conjunction with breves and semibreves . It is 
only possible to use them with longae simplices and duplices . 

Rule II 

Idem: Longae must be combined with breves, and may be used in conjunction 
with the larger and smaller semibreves, but never with minimae and mi- 
noratae. Breves may be combined with longae duplices , as well as with 
semibreves and oblique figures, as in the following example: 



1 -^ 1 = j jj n j 



Rule III 

Idem: The longa duplex, that is the note of six durational units, may be 
made imperfect by a brevis preceding or following, or by a rest of one 
durational unit, and it thereby becomes a longa of five durational units, 
as in the following example: 



, = j j_j. «u J J JJ. i JJ. JJ i 



■h-v Tin 

Maxim 3 

Idem: A. Breves must be combined with the larger and smaller semibreves , 
and with minimae and minoratae. 

B. It is improper for there to be other groupings. 

C. We have thus shown, which notes may be combined together. 



Here begins the sixth rubric, which concerns itself with the re- 
cognition of the various ways in which ligatures and oblique figures can 
form their initial part, and the manner in which oblique forms may be 
used in ligatures. 

Maxim 1 

Handlo: The initial parts of ligatures are formed in three ways, notably: 
with propriety, without propriety, and with opposite propriety. 



Coussemaker p. 331 a3 to p. 391 b9 



1) Organum. purum is still connected with the technique of holding tones for 

longer periods of time. 



20 

Rule I 

Franco: Whenever the second note is higher than the first, and the first 
has no stem whatsoever, the ligature is said to be cum proprietate , as 
in the following example: 



-■3 a /S 



Rule II (Maxim 2) 

Handlo: If the first note has an ascending or descending oblique figure 
above it, and if it has no stem, it is said to be cum proprietate , as in 
the following example: 



\f$ 



Rule III (Rule II) 

Franco: Whenever the first note is higher than the second and has a 
stem drawn downwards on the left side, it is said to be cum proprietate , 
as in the following example: 



• 



•\ \ 



Maxim 2 (Maxim 3) 

Handlo: A ligature is a collection of notational symbols, which are pro- 
perly formed from individual notes and oblique figures. An oblique 
figure is a solid field, containing two sung notes; it goes without 
saying, that only the first and last notes ace to be performed, while 
the middle notes are passed over without being sung. 

Maxim 3 (Rule III) 

Idem: It is necessary to distinguish an oblique figure from a ligature, 
when the former occurs alone. 

Maxim 4 

Idem: An oblique figure. may be used alone, or may be combined at the 
beginning of a ligature, and may be formed in the three ways described 
in the first maxim of this rubric. 

Maxim 5 

Franco: The first note of a ligature cum proprietate is a brevis. 

Maxim 6 

Handlo: The same may be said about the first note of a simple oblique 
figure, or if it forms part of a ligature (where it can be used only in 
a descending direction), it will. have an initial brevis, if it has a 
stem drawn downwards on the left. 

Coussemaker p. 391 blO to p. 392al8 



21 



Signa rotunda in a 14th Century English Source 




London, Westminster Abbey 12183, f. 2 recto 



22 



BEATUS VIR QUI REGNUM 



Westminster 12185 f. 2 r 



(**«) 




TN > 



a^ l 



t^?J J J3 j 



hominum Adorant Saj ienter 



P 



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re-gnanti-um Quern de- 



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Laus propter tibi 



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24 




25 



Rule IV 



Idem: It has already been noticed, that a ligature can be made cum pro- 

prietate in two ways: In the first place, if it is an ascending ligature, 

it is considered to be cum proprietate , as in the example of the first 
rule of this rubric. 

Rule V 

Idem: In the second place, if it is a descending ligature formed of squares 
or oblique figures, where there is a stem drawn downwards at the begin- 
ning, it is to be considered to be cum proprietate , as in the following example: 

\N 

Maxim 7 

Idem: No simple oblique figure may be said to be a ligature by itself; 
the reason for this is, that oblique breves or semibreves can not be 
found except in a single-note form, as long as they remain in a single 
oblique figure. It is thus unusual to consider them to be ligated, since 
a ligature requires at least two note forms; thus, the isolated, simple 
oblique figure does not combine breves and semibreves in a ligature, but 
rather in an oblique figure. 

Rule VI 

Idem: Several oblique figures, connecting paired notes, constitute a 
ligature, as in the following example: 



^^^/^^^ 



Rule VII 

Idem: A descending oblique figure with a stem at the beginning is said 
to be cum proprietate; an ascending oblique figure having a stem drawn 
downwards at the beginning is said to be cum proprietate , as in the 
following example: 



\N< f* 



Rule VIII 

Franco: Whenever the second square is higher than the first, and the 
first square has a stem drawn downwards on the right, it is said to be 
sine proprietate. 

Handlo: It is permissible in this case to have an ascending or descending 
oblique figure above the first square, as in the following example: 



Coussemaker p. 392al9 to p. 393a2 



26 

Rule DC 

Franco: Whenever the first square is higher than the second, and has no 
stem at all, it is said to be sine proprietate, as in the following example: 

Rule X 

Handlo: If many squares follow the first in an (initial) descending 
direction, either as ligatures or oblique figures, and if the. first 
square has no stem at all, the ligature is said to be sine proprietate, 
as in the following example: 



* >. A "SA^v 



Maxim 8 

Franco: In a ligature sine proprietate , the first note is a longa. 

Rule XI 

Handlo: No more than two longae may be contained in a ligatura longaris , 
either in a descending or ascending direction, as in the following example: 



Rule XII 

Idem: A longa simplex may either precede or follow a longa duplex 
in a descending direction, as in the following example: 



Rule XIII 

In an ascending direction, the longa simplex is drawn back over the 
longa duplex, but never vice versa, as in the following example: 



Coussemaker p. 393a3 to p. 393b6 



27 

Rule XIV 

Idem: A ligature sine proprietate may be recognised in three ways: In the 
first place, if an ascending ligature has a stem drawn downwards on the 
right side of the first square, as above; in the second place, if the 
first square of a descending ligature has no stem at all; in the third 
place, if a ligature begins with a descending oblique figure, which has 
no stem at all, it is said to be sine proprietate , as in the following 
example : 



1 



a 



Rule XV 



Idem: An ascending oblique figure must remain unattached, unless it is 
preceded by a longa or a brevis, or several breves, or one of several 
oblique figures, as in the following example: 



? r < y us 



Maxim 9 

Idem: Nothing may be ligated or added to an ascending oblique figure 
except a plica; there is really no point to using an ascending obliqiie 
figure, unless it has a plica. 

Rule XVI 

Idem: Ascending and descending oblique figures, which have no stem at 
all at the left, have an initial longa, as in the following example: 



> 



Rule XVII 

Idem: The beginning of an obliaue figure may be made perfect if a dot 
precedes it. The end of such a figure is determined by what follows it, 
as in the following- example: 

v'v^ -J. JJJJ..JJJJ. JJ J. 

Rule XVIII 

Idem: Single, descending oblique figures may or may not be plicated; 
similarly, ascending ones, as in the following example: 

Coussemaker p. 393b7 to p. 39^al3 



28 



N N ft| / / / 



Rule XIX 

Franco: Opposita proprietas is found whenever a stem drawn upwards is 
used with the first square of a ligature or with the field of an oblique 
figure, as in the following example: 



w k > 



Maxim 10 

Handlo: And they are semibreves, where the smaller precedes the larger, 
and they are contained in an oblique figure when they are alone, and 
they are usually not ligated. 

Rule XX 

Idem: A square-shaped semibrevis may be ligated to an ascending or 
descending oblique figure, as in the following example: 



^^ ^ "S 



Rule XXI 

Idem: More than two semibreves may not be combined in a ligature or 
oblique figure; if necessary, they can be conjoined alternatingly, as in 
the following example: 

Rule XXII 

Idem: Square shaped and oblique semibreves may be combined with square 
shaped and oblique breves, semilongae and longae , as in the following 
example: 

V^a= Jb j j j j j«hj j-j j 

Rule XXIII 

Idem: If the stem, which causes the opposita proprietas , i s shortened, 
then the larger semibrevis will precede the smaller in an oblique 
figure, not part of a ligature, as in the following example: 

Coussemaker p. 39Hal4 to p. 39m>l2 



29 

Maxim 11 
Franco: Every opposita proprietas is the sign of two semibreves . 



Here begins the seventh rubric, which concerns itself with the re- 
cognition of the significance of the final portions of ligatures. 

Rule I 

Franco: All middle notes are breves, unless opposita proprietas is as- 
serted, in which case the middle note will be a semibrevis , as in the 
following example: 



^ 



, j) j j 'ji j j ji j j 



Rule II 



Handlo: It is logical that the first two notes should be semibreves , but 
those which follow should never be; this has been shown in the examples 
of the first rule of this rubric. 

Franco: It is logical to assume, that a semibrevis cannot be found singly. 
Handlo: The middle notes of ligated oblique figures are breves, as in 
the following example: 

Nvf^ = J J J J J J J J 

Rule III 

Idem: Square-shaped breves may be ligated to them, and all such middle 
notes are breves, as in the following example: 

N^VN = j J J J J J J J 

Maxim i 

Idem: In the middle of a ligature, an oblique figure is always used in 
a descending, never in an ascending direction. 

Coussemaker p. 394bl3 to p. 395al I 



30 

Here begins the eighth rubric, which concerns itself with the re- 
cognition of the significance of the final portions of ligatures. 

Rule I 

Franco: Whenever the last square of a ligature is drawn back over the 
next-to-the-last note, the ligature is said to be cum perfectione, as in 
the following example: 



3 < 



Rule II 



f 



Idem: Whenever the last square of a ligature is found lower that the 
next-to-the-last one, the ligature is said to be cum perfectione , as in 
the following example: 



Rule III 

tiandlo: An ascending longa may always be drawn back over a longa, or over 
a brevis , or several breves, or two semibreves marked bv a stem, or over 
every descending oblique figure, and they -make the ligature perfect, as 
in the following example: 



p ^ ^ K 



Maxim 1 

Franco: Every ligature cum perfectione has a final longa. 

Rule IV 

Handlo: If a ligature continues in a descending direction, and if its 
final note is a square, this will be a longa.. and it mav be found below 
a longa, a brevis or many breves, or two semibreves , as in the following 
example: 



v * \ < 



Rule V 

Franco: Whenever the final square is not directly above the next-to-the- 
last note, it is a brevis, as in the following example: 



* ^ X 



Coussemaker o. 395a!2 to 395b j 3 



31 

Rule VI 

Idem: Whenever two notes are contained in an oblique figure at the end 
of a ligature, the final one will be a brevis , as in the following example: 



\ * y rJ 



Rule VII 

Handlo: In a descending ligature, a brevis may be ligated to a longa 
duplex, but not vice versa, as in the following example: 



Rule VIII 

Idem: Similarly, a longa duplex may be ligated with another one in a 
descending direction, as shown in the example of the preceding rule. 

Rule IX 

Idem: In an ascending ligature, a preceding longa duplex may be ligated 
to another one or to a brevis, as in the following example: 



Rule X 

Idem: One or more breves may be ligated between two longae duplices, as 
in the following example: 



Rule XI 

Idem: It is known that a brevis altera may often be hidden away in a 
ligature of square-shaped and oblique breves, as in the following example: 

*W = J J J J- J J J. J J J. 

Maxim 2 

Idem: It is wrong not to ligate notes capable of being ligated, or to 
ligate those which may not be ligated. 

Coussemaker p. 395bU to p. 396al 6 



32 

Here begins the ninth rubric, which concerns itself with the con- 
junction of semibreves , and with those figures or ligatures in which 
semibreves may be conjoined. 

Rule I 

Handlo: It should be noted that three smaller semibreves are normally 
conjoined in an ascending or descending direction, and a punctus di- 
v is ionis is used, whenever this is necessary, as in the following example: 

Rule II 

Idem: Minimae and ninoratae may similarly be conjoined with figurae 
rotundae, as in the following example: 

3 3 3 3 

Rule III 

Idem: Two semibreves can be conjoined with a longa or brevis, as in the 
following example: 



!•• T # "%V # = J JUJ JUJ /jj /j 

Rule IV 

Idem: Whenever two similar semibreves are conjoined, the first is the 
smaller, the second the larger, as shown in the example of the third 
rule of this rubric. 

Rule V 

Idem: This is true, unless an oblique stem prevents it; in such a case, 
the semibreves will be dissimilar, and the first will be the larger, the 
second the smaller, as in the following example , ». 

iu n* y* v* = J '/j>j J J) J jij n 



Coussemaker p. 396b! to p. 3 96b 1 4 



1) Undoubtedly, what is meant is the same thing that W. de Doncastre 

(Coussemaker p. 427) implies with the minorata senibrevis , or what we have 
translated as the larger semibrevis; again, exceptionally, it may come first. 



33 



Rule VI 



Idem: Two, three or four semibreves in ascending, descending, partially 
ascending or partially descending direction may be conjoined with the 
final portions of all ligatures and oblique figures, provided that the 
ligatures or oblique figures are not plicated, as in the following example: 



i . 3 r-\y-» 



* % »\ a U f - J J J)j jg J72T7J. /jg'j> 



Rule VII 

Idem: Groups of four semibreves may be conjoined without a sign of 
division, and they will have the durational value of one brevis ..as ii 
the following example: 

•••• *♦♦♦ = ffn nil 

3 ? 

Rule VIII 

Idem: This is changed, if the method of division is different, as in the 

following example: 

Maxim 1 

Idem: In such a case, three semibreves have the durational value of one 
brevis; the fourth one belongs to the following group, that is, it is 
counted as the durational value of the semibrevis inrnediately following, 

or its equivilence. 

Rule IX 

Idem: Three or four semibreves may be conjoined witha6rei/is or a longa, 
or vice versa, as in the following example: 



iSi-V* 



Coussemaker p. 397al to p. 397b5 



1) This violates the dictum in rubric 4, rule III. 



34 

Rule X 

Idem: A brevis preceding two, three or four semibreves , to which it is 
conjoined, may not be unmodified, but must have a stem drawn downwards 
on the left; in such a case, it is called a brevis coniugens, as shown 
above in the examples of the third and ninth rules of this rubric. 

Rule XI 

Idem: Separate and oblique semibreves may be conjoined to total the 
durational value of a perfection; such a conjunction has been shown in 
the twenty first rule of the sixth rubric. 

Rule XII 

Admetus de Aureliana: The practical musicians of Navarra conjoin mi- 
noratae and minimae in descending but never in ascending groups separated 
by divisional signs, as in the following example: 



^.♦u* = ihhh 



Rule XIII 

Idem: A larger or smaller, preceding semibrevis may be conjoined with 
minoratae and minimae, as in the following example: 

3 

Rule XIV 

Idem: And vice versa, minimae and minoratae may be conjoined with the 
smaller or larger semibrevis or with either a ligature or an oblique- 
figure, as in the following example: 

1 3 3 3 

Rule XV 

Handlo: If five simple semibreves are found conjoined, and if there is a 
punctus divisionis after three of them, these three have the durational 
value of one brevis; the two following ones are considered smaller semi- 
breves, if a single semibrevis follows, as in the following example |«: 



♦ 3 3 



Coussemaker p. 397b6 to p. 398al0 



1) J. Wolf, Geschichte der Mensuralnotation, 1904 p. 132 and Handbuch der 

Notationskunde, 1913 p. 342 considers this passage to refer to syncopation. 
Unfortunately, the example in the treatise is corrupt, so that one cannot judge 



35 
Rule XVI 

Idem: Two semibreves can be conjoined with ligated breves or vice versa; 
an oblique figure may be conjoined with three smaller semibreves , or with 
two followed by a minima and a minorata, or vice versa, as in the fol- 
lowing example: 



Maxim 2 



Idem: A single brevis can be conjoined with every ligature or oblique 
figure; in such a case, it is carried over to the following semibrevis , 
or its equivilence. 

Maxim 3 

Idem: A coniunctio ,* is an aglutination of musical figures, arranged 
according to their fashion, above a syllable of text. 

Maxim 4 

Idem: The best thing to do is to conjoin all notes capable of being con- 
joined, and to avoid doing that to notes incapable of being conjoined. 

Maxim 5 

Idem: Thus , the art of notational design, which every practical musician 
must master, lies in the proper interpretation of musical symbols, 
whether they be ligatures, oblique figures or coniuncturae . 



Here begins the tenth rubric, which concerns itself with the manner 
in which ligatures and oblique figures may be plicated, and the way in 
which a longa simplex becomes the same as a longa erecta by virtue of 
its plica. 

Maxim 1 

Handlo: A plica may only be added to the end of a ligature or oblique figure. 

Coussemaker p. 398a! I to p. 398bm 

whether this was Handlo' s intention or not. It would appear, however, that in 
this example, the sense is that five semibreves are in a coniunc tura, id est, 
they are sung to the same syllable of text. These then will have the durational 
value of two breves, especially if a punctus div is ionis is present, the first 
three totaling a brevis and being equal to each other; the latter two are 
semibreves minores if a s emibrevis divisa occurs. Divisus , however, means nee 
in coniunc tione , or with a separate syllable. Thus, there is no implication of 
an unresolved rhythmic value, as Wolf implies. 

1) The more. usual, term is coniunc tura, rather than coniunctio. 



3n 

Rule I 

Franco: A plicated square at the end of a ligature has the durational 
value of a longa. 

Handlo: This is true, whether the ligature ascends, descends, partially 
ascends or partially descends, as in the following example: 



. d, sr V = J J i/j> ^ ifi J J J A J JJJ* 



Rule II 



Franco: Whenever two notes are found in an oblique field at the end of a 
ligature, and there is a stem drawn upwards or downwards at the end, the 
last note is considered a plicated brevis, as in the following example: 

ry, ^ /1 = J J Jjfr J. J Jjfj J. J J jVj 

Rule III 

Handlo: An ascending oblique figure should be plicated; otherwise, the 
ascending oblique figure should be avoided, as we have indicated above 
in the ninth maxim of the sixth rubric. 

Idem: An oblique figure containing two semibreves may have a plica drawn 
upwards or downwards, as in the following example: 



ki»S.' ^,m = J> }/* 



3 

etc. 



Rule IV 



Idem: Three smaller semibreves may only have a plica drawn upwards at 
the end, as shown in the example of the eighth rule and in the following 
sixth maxim of the first rubric. 

Rule V 

Idem: The longa duplex can be plicated in an ascending or descending 
direction, as in the following example: 



. I J /j , I J W 



Coussemaker p. 398bl5 to p. 399al6 



37 

Rule VI 

Idem: It also may be plicated in an ascending or descending direction at 
the end of a ligature, as in the following example: 

Rule VII 

Idem: It is known, that a longa or semilonga at the end of a ligature or 
oblique figure, having a stem drawn upwards, will be transformed into a 
longa erecta, whenever a note or rest follows, to which the plica can be 
directed; in such a case, it is called a longa erecta, as in the following 
example : 

n , j . = j j j /j j j j jTj i 

Maxim 2 

Idem: Consequently, every ligature or oblique figure may be plicated at 
the end in an ascending or descending direction, whether it consists of 
longae , breves or semibreves . 



M 



laxim 



Idem: A. Every coniunctura of smaller semibreves may be plicated at the 
end in an ascending, but never in a descending direction; coniuncturae 
of minimae and minoratae , however, may never be plicated. 

B. The greater longae, those which exceed the durational value of 
one longa duplex, may neither be plicated nor ligated. 

C. Thus, these notes must be written out in full. 



Max 



lm 



Idem: The brevis alterata can be plicated at the end of a ligature or 
oblique form, as long as it is distinct graphically from a longa or 
semilonga following. 

Maxim 5 

Idem: The term longa can be said to be identical with the term perfection 
or imperfection, as when it has the durational value of a semi longa, as 
has been shown in the first and second maxims of the second rubric. 



Here begins the eleventh rubric, which in a single maxim concerns 
itself with the durational value of plicae 

Coussemaker p. 399al7 to p. 400a3 



38 

Maxim 1 

Handlo: A. It is known, that the plica of a single longa duplex has the 
durational value of a larger semibrevis. 

B. A plica of a longa or semilonga has the durational value of a 
smaller semibrevis. 

C. A plica of a brevis has the durational value of a smaller 
semibrevis. 

D. A plica of a larger semibrevis has the durational value of a 
minorata. 

E. A plica of a smaller semibrevis has the durational value of a 
minima. 

F. A square-shaped semibrevis in a ligature cannot be plicated, 
neither can a minima nor a minorata. 



Here begins the twelfth rubric, which concerns itself with the 
rests made by the pausing of the voice. 

Maxim 1 

Franco: There are six kinds of rests: 

A. The first contains three durational units. 

B. The second, two. 

C. The third, one. 

D. The fourth, two parts of one. 

E. The fifth, the third part of one. 

F. The sixth and final one "contains no durational units, but 
could be termed an unmeasured rest. 

The reason that this last one is used is, that wherever the next-to- 
the last note is designated to be long, it may nevertheless be notated 
as a brevis or semibrevis (to preserve the identity of the mode). 

Maxim 2 

Handlo: Minoratae and minimae do not have rests which correspond in dura- 
tional value. 

Maxim 3 

Franco: A. A rest of three durational units will cover three spaces or 
three beats, or two wholes and two halves; a rest of two durational 
units will cover two spaces, or one whole and two halves. 

B. A rest of one durational unit will cover one space or two 
half spaces. 

C. A rest of two parts of one durational unit will cover two 
parts of one space. 

D. A rest of one part of one durational unit will cover the 
third part of one space. 

Coussemaker p. 400a4 to p. M-OObl I 



39 

E. An immeasurable rest is used at the end of a period and covers 
four spaces; forms which cover five spaces are also known for this kind 
of rest. 



Maxim 4 

Idem: The durational value of 1 1/3 semibreves is quite often caused by 
a rest of two parts of a smaller semibrevis added to a minorata. 

Maxim 5 

Iacobus de Navernia .,: There are three kinds of hockets. 

A. The first kind uses a brevis with a rest of one or two dura- 
tional units appended to it, or vice versa. 

B. The second kind uses a smaller semibrevis appended to a rest of 
two parts of one durational unit, or vice versa. 

C. The third kind attaches a rest of one third of one durational 
unit to smaller semibreves. This last kind is the most difficult of all. 

Maxim 6 

Idem: If indeed the hocket should make use of three smaller semibreves , 
utilising rests of the third part of a durational unit, the unity of 
the composition is restored after the hocket and after its rests, so' 
that the error engendered by the rests and the smaller semibreves may be 
eradicated. 

Maxim 7 

Iohannes de Gar landia: A hocket never utilises minimae and minor at ae , 
because there are no rests for use in the hocket; consequently, these 
notes cannot be used in a hocket. 



Here begins the thirteenth rubric, which concerns itself with how 
many rhythmic modes or mensurations are found in melodies. 

Maxim 1 

Franco: Modern musicians propose five rhythmic modes for vocal music. 

Coussemaker p. 400b 12 to p. 40lall 

I) Anon. IV (Coussemaker, p. 345a) mentions older books from Pomplensa, the 
capital of Navarra, so that this James came from an area with a long tradition. 
Pomplensa is not far removed from Burgos, where the tradition represented at 
Las Huelgas is found in the famous manuscript from that cloister (confice the 
article Las Huelgas in Die Musik in Geschichte und Ge genwart) . Perhaps it is 
significant that a Spaniard dirscusses the hocket, since a certain Spaniard had 
written the hocket In seculun (confice the article In seculun in MGG) . 



40 



Rule I 



Idem: The first mode consists exclusively of longae perfectae , as shown 
in the following motet ^,. 



s-v-i 



In Beth- le- em 



/L {>■ v 


H^-l^ 9 " 


fJm 


i» a P 9 ~ 


m iff 

A-mours mi 


,/&«/ re-Jo - 


ir 


^V monfin cuer 


if Is \S 


P' -. 


(J- 


-r ©-= 


^ ' 

* In 

fib *v. 


— i 
Beth- 

-6)-= 


-A^z- 


le- 



tf 



In 



Beth- 



le- 



Max 



lm l: 



Handlo: This mode is considered the most perfect, because all other 
modes are derived from it {id est, represent divisions of the longa I . 

Rule II 

Franco: Or the first mode consists of a longa, brevis and longa, as 
shown in the example cited. 2»« 






is- 



^ 



# 



3fa-ri-a f ma-ris stel-la, Ple-na gra-ti- t 



Maxim 3 

Handlo: In the first mode, one finds a rest of three durational units, 
if a longa has preceded, or a rest of two durational units if a brevis 
has preceded, or a rest of one durational unit, if a semilonga has preceded, 
or rests of one, two and one durational units, if a semilonga has preceded. 

Coussemaker p. HOI al 2 to p. H0la23 



1) Incipit of a transcription of the motet as contained in the manuscript 
Pans, Bibliotheque nationale, nouv. acq. frc. 13521 f. 382r-v ( p 755-756), 
facsimile in Facsimiles of Mediaeval Musical Manuscripts Vol. IV. This triplum 
is unique in this source. 

2) This example is erroneously appended to the previous one in Coussemaker* s 
edition; this motet has been transcribed by Y. Rokseth, Polyphonies du 13e 
siecle, 1936-1939 II No. 52. 



41 



Maxim 4 

Idem: A. In the first mode, if the senilonga is replaced by a ligature, 
by an oblique figure, by a coniunctura of semibreves , or by a rest of 
two durational units, where the individual brevis is not changed, it 
becomes important to establish the nature of this first mode. 

B. The same thing is true, if the individual brevis is replaced 
by a ligature, oblique figure or coniunctura of semibreves or by a rest 
of one du rati one 1 unit. 

Rule III 

Franco: The second mode consists of a brevis, ionga and brevis, as shown 



in the following example: 



i) 



fa 1 a 



3: 



Mane primi sabbatini 




Mane pritrti sabbatini 



Maxim 5 

Handlo: In the second mode, one finds a rest of two durational units, if 
a brevis has preceded, or a rest of one durational unit followed by a 
semilonga rest of two. 

Maxim 6 

Idem.: A. In the second mode, if the brevis is replaced by a ligature, by 
an oblique figure, by a conianctura of semibreves, or by a rest of one 
durational unit, where the following individual semi longa is not changed, 
it becomes important to establish the nature of this second mode. 

B. The same thing is true, if the individual semilonga is replaced 
by a ligature, oblique figure or coniunctura of semibreves or by a rest 
of two durational units. 

Rule IV 

Franco: The third mode consists of a longa and two breves and a longa, 



as in the following motet: 



J 



fr 



■ B 



Quid mi-ra-ris par- turn vir-gi-ne-um 






Quid mi-ra - ris par-turn vir-gi-ne - um 



Coussemaker p. 401 bl to p. 401 b23 

1) This example, textiess in the source, is identical with the tenor Mane 

primi sabbati, which is used for the composition Montpellier No. 51 (confice 
Rokseth, opere citato). 



2) For this and the following transcription, confice F. Ludwig, Archiv fur 

Musikwissenschaft, V 1923 p. 296 footnote 2. 



42 



Maxim 7 



Handlo: In the third mode, one finds a rest of three durational units, 
if a longa has preceded. 

Rule V 

Franco: The fourth mode consists of two breves and a longa and two breves, 
as in the following example: 



>»■ ' t ■ t ■ i ■ -? J ' i ' ' 1 ' M " • I 1 



Ro-su-la pri-mu-la Sal-ve Ies-se vir-gu-la Ro-su-la pri-mu-la Sal-ve Ies - se vir-gu-la 



Maxim 8 
Handlo: In the fourth mode, one finds a rest of three durational units. 

Maxim 9 

Idem: The third and fourth modes must be altered, if they are presented 
in mos lascivus, as in the fifth maxim of the fourth rubric. 

Rule VI 

Franco: The fifth mode consists entirely of breves and semibreves , as in 
the following examples j». 

Coussemaker p. 402al to p. 402al2 



1) All of the known musical settings of this motet have been given. With the 

exception of the uppermost part of the transcription, this composition forms a 
four-part motet, which is complete only in the manuscript: Paris, n.a.frc. 13521 
(confice footnote 1, p. 40). In this version, the text Quant froidure is used 
for the triplum. All other extant versions have fewer parts. Wolfenbuttel 1099, 
f. 123 r and Florence, plat. 29,1 f. 396 v use the triplum and motetus with the 
text Agmina milicie, written by Chancellor Philippe, whereas Wolfenbuttel 1099, 
f. 134 r uses Quant froidure in both parts. Agmina milicie is used in the motetus 
in a two-part setting in London, British Museum, Egerton 27 U f. 45 r , and this 
text is combined with the quadruplum in Bamberg No. VI (confice, P. Aubry, Cent 
Motetsdu 13e siecle, II 1908, p. 14) with the text Agmina milicie candencia. 
Finally, the motetus, which with the tenor constitutes the clausula in Paris, 
lat. 15139 No. 40 f. 292 v , is provided with the Provencale text: L'autrier 
cuidai aber druda tota la meillor, in both the clausula and in Paris, frc. #44 
f. 199 v , in which latter case, as well as in lat. 15139 f. 292 v , it is written 
for one voice (confice J. Beck, Die Melodien der Troubadours , 1908 p. 65ff. ). 
The uppermost part is found only in treatises, whereby the insert in original 
notation appears in Handlo' s treatise. This same excerpt appears in a three-part 
setting in Odington's treatise (Coussemaker p. 248) with the motetus Agmina and 
tenor; this version has been used for the transcription, confice also Coussemaker, 
Histoire de I'harmonie au moyen age, 1865 p. 262; ibidem for Novum melum and 
Coussemaker p. 424b. Regina regni is apparently unique. 



43 



Hg 



& A-gmi-nafi- 



W 



4 



Dv 



~ZL 



~0~ 



A - gmi- 
Quant froi- 



i 



i 



4H8- 






se 



de-li-um Ka 



■&-*- 



la 

-e- 



na 
du 



&~ 



# 



7W2 



Prn frrrTT 



te-ri-na lau 



7Z- 



dant prt-co-ni- 



vir 



ge 



~W- 



li - ci 
trait a 



m 

Ka 



~TT~ 

e 
fin 



te- 



ce- 
en- 



i 



^- 



£ 



n - tie 



(J g 
con -ire 



i 



1 1 
chan-tt- 



- 7H7W- 



#■# 



s 



raz, 



g=t 



a 



ii 



f 



^ - gmi- 



na mi - 



ft - ci 



ce- 



les - tis 



o - mm- 



& 



1 



2Z 



J5^- 



Z2 



Agmina 















♦ 


■ ♦• * ♦ ■ 


6 


4. 






h" 






•♦.* ■ 


V 

















A-gmi-na fi - de-li-um Ka - te-ri-na 



♦ ♦— i ♦— * 



No-vum me-los pro-me-re 



s <& f f f r p ^^ 



8 



Xo-vum me-los pro-me-re 



-♦v 



» • ♦ • . 



♦ ♦ ♦. ♦ 



■«—I- 



Re-gi-na re-gni glo-ri-e So 
3 3- s 



la sal-ve sin-gu-la-ris gra - ti - e 




Re-gi-na re-gni g!o-ri-e So - la sal-ve sin-gu-la-ris gra - ti - e 



44 

Maxim 10 

Handlo: In the fifth mode, one finds a rest of three durational units, 
if a longa has preceded, or of one durational unit, if a semilonga rest 
has preceded, or of two durational units if a brevis rest has preceded, 
or of two thirds of one durational unit, if a smaller semibrevis has 
preceded, or of one third of one durational unit, if a larger semibrevis 
has preceded, or if two smaller semibreves have preceded. 

Maxim 11 

Idem: A. The following types of compositions appear in this mode: all 
hockets, rondeaux, ballades, coreae , cantifractus , estampies and flori- 
turae jt, and all kinds of breves and semibreves under the sun comprise 
this fifth mode, which is made up of semibreves , breves and longae . 

B. In the fifth mode, three breves have the durational value of a 
perfection, or three units. 

C. Occasionally, only two breves will comprise a perfection, in 
which case, one of them is a brevis altera. 

D. Franco's intention has been shown in this method of computation. 

Maxim 12 

Idem: All of the previously mentioned modes may easily be reduced to the 
fifth mode. 

Maxim 13 

Idem: The five modes, which we have listed, may be used in combination. 
Thus, if one mode has been used for one or more perfections, and is 
followed by a different one, then a punctus divisionis is added between 
the modes, that the mixing of the modes may be more easily recoernised. 

Maxim 14 

Idem: The maxims differ from the rules, in that, whereas the rules use 
examples, the maxims are understood directly without examples, the text 
explaining the meaning. 

Maxim 15 

Idem: Every kind of. mensuration, and the rhythm of all songs have been 
reduced to five modes. If we were to continue to make more rules and 
maxims, we would never come to an end. Nevertheless, my esteemed reader, 
study these books well and preserve their import; it is intended for 
all practical musicians; and pray God for the preservation of the Holy 
Scriptures. Thus, the end of this book is given over to the Glory of 
Christ. 

Here end the rules with additions, finished on the Friday just 
before Pentecost, in the year of our Lord 1326, Amen. 



Coussemaker p. 402b! to p. i|03b6 



i) 

turae 



Coreae = Cantus coronati?; cantifractus also suggests a hocket, and floi 
melismatic (instrumental?) passages. 



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I 


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Text. Engltsb 




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UNSERE VEROEFFENTLICHUNGEN 
OUR PUBLICATIONS 

VEROEFFENTLICHUNGEN MITTELALTERLICHER 
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Text: Deutscb & English 

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Text: English 

MIKROFILME MICROFILMS 

I Studies of Music in the Middle Ages (Gennrich, Wagner, 

Schwan, Appel, Sartori, Schneider & Raynaud) „„. ,......., . $18 

II U. Chevalier, Repertorium Hymnologicum t $12 

WISSENSCHAFTLICHE ABHANDLUNGEN 
MEDIAEVAL STUDIES 

L. Dittmer. Auszug aus 'The Worcester Music Fragments' „ ,$1.00 



Date Due 










-j-p 1 1 


-,-. 






WAV 1 9 1 


976 






























































































































Library Bureau Cat. No. 1137 



Music MT 5.5 .H3613 1959 
Handle-, Robertus de. 
Robert de Handle